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Student Resources


Causation:  A statement describing a cause-effect relationship between two variables.

Correlation:  A mutual relationship or connection between two variable quantities.

Correlation Coefficient:  A value between −1 and +1 calculated to represent the linear dependence of two variables in a data set.  The closer the value is to −1 or +1, the stronger the relationship.  The correlation coefficient should only be used when a linear regression has been applied.

Linear regression:  A technique in which a straight line is fitted to a set of data points to measure the effect of a single independent variable.

Lurking variable: An extraneous variable that may influence the interpretation of relationships among the given variables.

Residual: The difference between the actual, observed value and a value predicted by the regression equation.