# Student Resources

## Glossary

(Note: The terms appear in alphabetical order, and not in sequence with the lessons of the module.)

Bias: The design of a statistical study results in favored outcomes.

Confidence interval: A range of values so defined that there is a specified probability that the value of a parameter lies within it.

Experimental probability: The probability found after conducting a statistical experiment.

Experimental study: Investigators apply treatments to experimental subjects and then observe the effect of the treatments on the experimental units.

Hypothesis: An assumption about certain characteristics of a population.

Inference: A conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning.

Margin of error: The range of values required in order to insure statistical confidence in the inferences and conclusions stated.

Observational study: A study where the investigators observe subjects and measure variables of interest without assigning treatments to the subjects.

Population: The complete set of subjects in a study.

Population mean: The mean, or average, of the measurements or data gathered for all members of a particular group, or population.

Population parameter: Statistics describing the population, such as the mean and standard deviation of the population.

Probability model: A mathematics tool to help collect the data.

Randomization: A deliberately haphazard arrangement of observations so as to simulate chance.

Sample: A set of subjects from the population of a study.

Sample mean: The mean, or average, of the measurements or data gathered for a sample, or portion, of the population.

Sample survey: A study where investigators survey subjects and measure variables of interest based on what the subjects report.

Simple random sample: A set of subjects randomly chosen from a population.

Simulate: To mimic or imitate.

Simulation: The process of using a probability tool to model a probability situation to estimate its characteristics or solve problems.

Statistical study: A collection of methods used to process large amounts of data and report overall trends.

Statistical experiment: A process of collecting and analyzing data to make sound statistical decisions.

Theoretical probability: The chance of an event happening based on all the possible outcomes.