# Student Resources

## Glossary

(Note: The terms appear in alphabetical order, and not in sequence with the lessons of the module.)

**Bias**: The design of a statistical study results in favored outcomes.

**Confidence interval**: A range of values so defined that there is a specified probability that the value of a parameter lies within it.

**Experimental probability:** The probability found after conducting a statistical experiment.

**Experimental study:** Investigators apply treatments to experimental subjects and then observe the effect of the treatments on the experimental units.

**Hypothesis:** An assumption about certain characteristics of a population.

**Inference:** A conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning.

**Margin of error:** The range of values required in order to insure statistical confidence in the inferences and conclusions stated.

**Observational study:** A study where the investigators observe subjects and measure variables of interest without assigning treatments to the subjects.

**Population:** The complete set of subjects in a study.

**Population mean:** The mean, or average, of the measurements or data gathered for all members of a particular group, or population.

**Population parameter:** Statistics describing the population, such as the mean and standard deviation of the population.

**Probability model:** A mathematics tool to help collect the data.

**Randomization:** A deliberately haphazard arrangement of observations so as to simulate chance.

**Sample:** A set of subjects from the population of a study.

**Sample mean:** The mean, or average, of the measurements or data gathered for a sample, or portion, of the population.

**Sample survey:** A study where investigators survey subjects and measure variables of interest based on what the subjects report.

**Simple random sample:** A set of subjects randomly chosen from a population.

**Simulate:** To mimic or imitate.

**Simulation:** The process of using a probability tool to model a probability situation to estimate its characteristics or solve problems.

**Statistical study:** A collection of methods used to process large amounts of data and report overall trends.

**Statistical experiment:** A process of collecting and analyzing data to make sound statistical decisions.

**Theoretical probability:** The chance of an event happening based on all the possible outcomes.